[seqfan] Re: A088144 and A076409 (esp the latter)
Richard Guy
rkg at cpsc.ucalgary.ca
Thu Feb 24 20:24:53 CET 2011
I sh'd've said more in the last paragraph of the
message below. The subsequences of A076409 and
A076410 which attain to primes p = 4k+3 merit
separate listing (and perhaps their complements,
i.e., the terms attaining to primes 4k+1, but I
leave a decision on that to the editors):
Note that the sum of the quadratic residues of
a prime of either shape is always (k-e)p
where e = 0 for the 4k+1 primes, and is
also zero for those 4k+3 primes whose class
number of the quadratic field of discriminant
-p is one. I don't have the list of nine in
front of me, but from what follows we see that
7, 11, 19, 43, 67, 163 are included. [Later:
I see that it's A003173 and the other three
are 1, 2, 3.]
Suggested sequences:
sum of q.r.s of primes 4k+3 [subseq of A076409]:
1,7,22,76,92,186,430,423,767,1072,994,1343,1577,2369,
2675,3683,3930,4587,5134,6520,6012,7518,7813,8955,10761,
previous seq divided by 4k+3, i.e., k-e in the formula
(k-e)(4k+3) [subseq of A076410]:
?,1,2,4,4,6,10,9,13,16,14,17,19,23,25,29,30,33,34,40,36,
42,41,45,51,
The quantity e in the above (with zeroes corresponding
to Heegner numbers) [this quantifies David Wilson's
remark under `FORMULA' in A076410]:
?,0,0,0,1,1,0,2,1,0,3,2,1,2,1,2,2,1,3,0,5,2,6,4,1,
This relates to an old problem (I first got it from
Davenport about 60 years ago) about finding an elementary
proof that, for 4k+3 primes, there are more quadratic
residues in the interval [1,2k+1] than there are in
[2k+2,4k+2]. These numbers also merit a place in OEIS:
Number of q.r.s in the first half:
1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 9,12,14,19,18,21,22,25,28,31,
Number of q.r.s in the last half:
0, 1, 1, 3, 4, 6, 9, 9,10,15,14,17,16,23,22,
Excess of first half over last half:
1, 1, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 5, 9, 3, 7, 5, 9, 5, 9,
All of these sequences, especially the last three,
should be extended by someone who knows how to use
a computer. And my hand calculations are unlikely
to be error-free.
Further exercise for the reader: find that
elementary proof, independent of class numbers
of imaginary quadratic fields. Best of luck, R.
On Wed, 23 Feb 2011, Richard Guy wrote:
> Dear JM Bergot,
> I'm copying my reply to
> the seqfan network, as there are one or
> two things they may like to add to OEIS.
>
> The sum of the primitive roots
> of p (A088144) is a multiple of p whenever
> p is of shape 4k+1. This is because the
> primitive roots come in pairs, r and p-r,
> and their number is phi(phi(p)) = phi(p-1),
> and the total is p * phi(p-1) / 2, though I
> didn't see that this was mentioned in A088144.
> The sum is also a multiple of p for p = 19;
> are there other examples? Searching for the
> sequence 5, 13, 17, 19, 29, ... didn't give
> any hits. Perhaps it would be of interest to
> list the subsequence
>
> 2 = 1*3 - 1, 8 = 1*7 + 1, 23 = 2*11 + 1, 57 = 3*19, 139 = 6*23 + 1, 123 =
> 4*31 - 1,
> 257 = 6*43 - 1, 612 = 13*47 + 1, 886 = 15*59 + 1,
> 669 = 10*67 - 1, 1064 = 15*71 - 1, 1105 = 14*79 - 1,
> 1744 = 21*83 + 1, ...
>
> and of the coefficients
>
> 1, 1, 2, 3, 6, 4, 6, 13, 15, 10, 15, 10, 14, 21, ...
>
> and even the ``errors''
>
> -1, 1, 1, 0, 1, -1, -1, 1, 1, -1, -1, -1, 1, ...
> (are there any more zeroes? or any terms other
> than 1 & -1 ?)
>
> In answer to your second question, the
> sum of the primitive roots is equal to the sum
> of the quadratic residues (A076409) for p = 5
> and p = 17 and perhaps (only?) for the Fermat
> primes. Here it IS mentioned that the sum is
> k(4k+1) when p= 4k+1 and A076410 confirms
> that the sum is always a multiple of p, though
> it would be good to mention this at A076409.
>
> Best, R.
>
> On Mon, 21 Feb 2011, JM Bergot wrote:
>
>> Do you think it is possible for:
>> (1)The sum of the primitive roots of some
>> prime p is divisible by p.
>>
>> (2)The sum of the quadratic residues for
>> some prime p is the same as the sum
>> of its primitive roots, say for some p
>> of the form 2*q+1=p for prime q.
>
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