[seqfan] Re: [math-fun] Divisibility sequences in OEIS.
rwg at sdf.lonestar.org
rwg at sdf.lonestar.org
Tue Dec 15 02:42:24 CET 2009
This is my second attempt to reply from laughably flaky Squirrelmail.
Sorry for any repetitions.
> AhA!! Well done Bill! At last someone is begining to
> see the light. But one doesn't need to be so esoteric
> as to go into elliptic divisibility (= Somos??) sequences.
> You can get all second order linear recurrences (which are
> divisibility sequences if you take a(0)=0) by tipping up
> Omar Khayyam's triangle (see A011973 in OEIS):
> (0)
> 1
> 1
> 1 1
> 1 2
> 1 3 1
> 1 4 3
> 1 5 6 1
> 1 6 10 4
> 1 7 15 10 1
> 1 8 21 20 5
> 1 9 28 35 15 1
> 1 10 36 56 35 6
> 1 11 45 84 70 21 1
> .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
>
> and then get a TWO-parameter family by multiplying
> the columns from right to left by a^0, a^1, a^2, ...
> and the left-falling diagonals downwards by
> b^0, b^1, b^2, ..., giving the sequence, which
> I'll call S(a,b), of polynomials
>
> 0, 1, a, a^2 + b, a^3 + 2ab, a^4 + 3a^2* b + b^2,
> a^5 + 4a^3*b + b^2, a^6 + 5a^4*b + 6a^2*b^2 + b^3,
> a^7 + 6a^5*b + 10a^3*b^2 + 4b^3, ...
>
> which factor into algebraic & primitive parts,
> just like Bill's. I believe that S(2x,-1) are
> (one sort of) Chebyshev polynomials.
>
> The lists that I gave earlier were for S(k,1)
> and S(k,-1). All the sequences for all a & b
> have almost all of the properties mentioned in
> my checklist, and people are beginning to add
> more.
>
> Every second term of the sequence is S(a^2+2b,-b^2),
> every third term is S(a^3+3ab,b^3), etc.
>
> Note that S(-a,b) = (-1)^(n+1) * S(a,b).
>
> Everyone knows that S(1,1) is the Fibs, but
> it may not be so well known that S(4,1) is
> F(3n)/2, for example. Can anyone state the
> theorem behind item 13 in the checklist?
>
> Just in case there's anyone rueing having deleted
> my earlier message, I'd be happy to resend to them
> personally. I don't want to bother the whole list,
> but I would like to enlist help from a few keen
> types to do the enormous amount of spring cleaning
> that needs to be done.
>
> As another example, here is a list of the rather
> motley collection of present titles of S(k,-2):
>
> ......
> k=-3 missing (-1)^(n+1) * S(3,-2)
> k=-2 A108520 see k=2 below.
> k=-1 A001607 a(n)=-a(n-1)-2a(n-2)
> k=0 missing 0,1,0,-2,0,4,0,-8,0,16,0,...
> k=1 A107920 Lucas & Lehmer numbers ...
> k=2 missing, though is (-1)^(n+1) * A108520,
> which is Expansion of 1/(1+2x+2x^2)
> k=3) A000225 Mersenne numbers, repeated as
> k=3) A168604 No. of ways of partitioning the
> multiset ...
> k=4 A007070 a(n)=4a(n-1)-2a(n-2)
> k=5 A107839 a(n)=5a(n-1)-2a(n-2),a(0)=1,a(1)=5
> (though these initial values are ``wrong'')
> [cf. A005824 and A109165 which each
> interweave this seq with another. Also
> A159289, which has curious initial values.]
> k=6 A154244 a(n)=((3+sqrt7)^n-(3-sqrt7)^n)/2*sqrt7
> k=7 missing from here on.
> ...........
>
> Thankyou again for your patience, if you got this
> far. R.
>
> On Sun, 13 Dec 2009, rwg at sdf.lonestar.org wrote:
>
>> NJAS> Here is the preface to a file:
>>>
>>> This is a list, in OEIS numerical order, of
>>> divisibility sequences.
>>
>> I confess to having looked up only a few of the 60-odd sequences, but it
>> may come as news to some that there are elliptic divisibility sequences
>> of polynomials. E.g.
>> s[1]:s[2]:1,s[3]:-1,s[4]:x,s[n+4] :=(s[n+3]*s[n+1] + s[n+2]^2)/s[n]
>> gives
>> 1 1
>> 2 1
>> 3 - 1
>> 4 x
>> 5 x + 1
>> 2
>> 6 x - x - 1
>> 3
>> 7 - (x + x + 1)
>> 8 - x (3 x + 2)
>> 5 4 2
>> 9 x - x + 3 x + 3 x + 1
>> 5 4 3 2
>> 10 - (x + 1) (x - x + 3 x + 2 x - 2 x - 1)
>> 7 6 5 4 3 2
>> 11 - (x - 2 x + 3 x + 9 x + 5 x + 3 x + 3 x + 1)
>> 2 6 4 3 2
>> 12 - x (x - x - 1) (x + 2 x + 5 x + 9 x + 9 x + 3)
>> . . .
>> where s[<prime>] is irreducible, etc.
>> --rwg
(Sorry about ascribing your words to Neil.)
Note that these polynomials satisfy a stronger condition than
gcd(s[a],s[b]) = s[gcd(a,b)], namely a|n -> s[a]|s[n]. E.g.,
2 5 4 2
18 (x - x - 1) (x - x + 3 x + 3 x + 1)
13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5
(x + x + 7 x + 19 x + 25 x + 78 x + 133 x + 108 x + 79 x
4 3 2
+ 65 x + 24 x - 6 x - 6 x - 1)
22 21 20 19 18 17 16
19 - (x - 5 x + 15 x + 4 x - 20 x + 108 x + 162 x
15 14 13 12 11 10 9
+ 89 x + 294 x + 580 x + 614 x + 378 x - 179 x - 255 x
8 7 6 5 4 3 2
+ 870 x + 2011 x + 1897 x + 1044 x + 405 x + 140 x + 45 x
+ 10 x + 1)
5 4 3 2
20 x (x + 1) (x - x + 3 x + 2 x - 2 x - 1)
18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11
(x - 3 x + 4 x + 3 x + x - 26 x - 12 x + 71 x
10 9 8 7 6 5 4
- 118 x - 469 x - 481 x - 382 x - 554 x - 753 x - 688 x
3 2
- 430 x - 180 x - 45 x - 5).
I have been calling these "strong divisibility sequences". What's the
accepted term?
The degree of these polynomials,
0,0,0,1,1,2,3,2,5,6,7,9,10,12,14,14,18,..., grows nonlinearly, in fact as
eight interlaced quadratic progressions. This offers a good OEIS signature,
but how to tabulate the actual, jagged, nontriangular coefficient array?
--rwg
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